Getting Started with melange

melange is a declarative apk builder

melange is an apk builder tool that uses declarative pipelines to create apk packages. From a single YAML file, users are able to generate multi-architecture apks that can be injected directly into apko builds, which renders apko and melange a powerful combination for any container image factory.

Understanding melange can help you better understand the Wolfi operating system and how Chainguard Images are made to be minimal and secure, but it is not necessary to have a background in melange in order to use Chainguard Images.

Why melange

Software supply chain threats have been growing exponentially in the last few years, according to industry leaders and security researchers (PDF). With the popularization of automated workflows and cloud native deployments, it is more important than ever to provide users with the ability to attest the provenance of all relevant software artifacts.

Instead of building your application together with your components and system dependencies, you can build your application once and compose it into different architectures and distributions using melange, as if they were any other component of an image.

In this guide, you’ll learn how to build a software package with melange. To demonstrate the versatile combination of melange and apko builds, we’ll package a small command-line PHP script and build a minimalist container image with the generated apk. All files used in this demo are open source and available at the melange-php-demos repository.


Our guide is compatible with operating systems that support Docker and shared volumes. Please follow the appropriate Docker installation instructions for your operating system.

You won’t need PHP or Composer installed on your system, since we’ll be using Docker to build the demo app.

Note for Linux Users

In order to be able to build apks for multiple architectures using Docker, you’ll need to register additional QEMU headers within your kernel. This is done automatically for Docker Desktop users, so if you are on macOS you don’t need to run this additional step.

Run the following command to register the necessary handlers within your kernel, using the multiarch/qemu-user-static image.

docker run --rm --privileged multiarch/qemu-user-static --reset -p yes

You should now be able to build apks for all architectures that melange supports.

Step 1 — Downloading the melange Image

The fastest way to get melange up and running on your system is by using the official melange image with Docker. Start by pulling the official melange image into your local system:

docker pull

This will download the latest version of the distroless melange image, which is rebuilt every night for extra freshness.

Check that you’re able to run melange with docker run.

docker run --rm version

You should get output similar to the following:

  __  __   _____   _          _      _   _    ____   _____
 |  \/  | | ____| | |        / \    | \ | |  / ___| | ____|
 | |\/| | |  _|   | |       / _ \   |  \| | | |  _  |  _|
 | |  | | | |___  | |___   / ___ \  | |\  | | |_| | | |___
 |_|  |_| |_____| |_____| /_/   \_\ |_| \_|  \____| |_____|

GitVersion:    v0.1.0-67-g108fd6a
GitCommit:     108fd6a5e400bd100ef6db813380de44516de6e6
GitTreeState:  clean
BuildDate:     2022-08-01T13:36:41
GoVersion:     go1.18.5
Compiler:      gc
Platform:      linux/amd64

With melange installed, you’re ready to proceed.

Step 2 — Preparing the Demo App

To demonstrate melange’s features with a minimalist application that has real-world functionality, we’ll create a PHP command line app that queries the Slip advice API and outputs a random piece of advice. The app is a single-file script built with Minicli.

Create a folder in your home directory to place your demo files, then cd into it:

mkdir ~/hello-minicli && cd $_

Run the following command, which will use the official Composer image to generate a composer.json file and download minicli/minicli:

docker run --rm -it -v "${PWD}":/app composer require minicli/minicli

Once you receive confirmation that the download was completed, we’ll need a second dependency to query the advice slip API. Run the following command to include minicli/curly, a simple curl wrapper for Minicli:

docker run --rm -it -v "${PWD}":/app composer require minicli/curly

Next, create a new file called minicli using your text editor of choice. This will be the executable we’ll ship with our apk package.

nano minicli

The following code will set up a new Minicli application and define a single command called advice. This will make a GET query to the advice slip API, check the return code, and print the resulting quote when the query is successful.

Because our app will be built into an apk and later on embedded on a container image, we’ll check for the right location of the vendor folder before requiring the autoload.php file. This file must be included before the application is instantiated. The MINICLI_HOME environment variable can be used to customize the vendor location, which is by default set to /usr/share/minicli.

Place the following code in your minicli file:

#!/usr/bin/env php


use Minicli\App;
use Minicli\Curly\Client;
use Minicli\Exception\CommandNotFoundException;

if (php_sapi_name() !== 'cli') {

$vendor_path = __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

if (!file_exists($vendor_path)) {
    $minicli_home = getenv('MINICLI_HOME') ?: '/usr/share/minicli';
    $vendor_path = $minicli_home . '/vendor/autoload.php';

require $vendor_path;

$app = new App([
    'debug' => true

$app->setSignature('Usage: ./minicli advice');

$app->registerCommand('advice', function () use ($app) {
    $client = new Client();

    $response = $client->get('');
    if ($response['code'] !== 200) {
        $app->getPrinter()->error('An API error has occurred.');

    $advice = json_decode($response['body'], true);

try {
} catch (CommandNotFoundException $notFoundException) {
    $app->getPrinter()->error("Command Not Found.");
    return 1;
} catch (Exception $exception) {
    if ($app->config->debug) {
        $app->getPrinter()->error("An error occurred:");
    return 1;

return 0;

Save and close the file when you’re done. If you’re using nano, you can do that by typing CTRL+X, then Y and ENTER to confirm.

Set the script as executable with:

chmod +x minicli

Now you can run the application to make sure it’s functional. We’ll also use Docker for that:

docker run --rm -it -v "${PWD}":/app php:8.1-cli php /app/minicli advice

You should get a random piece of advice such as:

Gratitude is said to be the secret to happiness.

With the application ready, you can start building your package.

Step 3 — Creating the melange YAML File

The melange.yaml file is where you’ll declare the details and specifications of your apk package. For code that generates self-contained binaries, this is typically where you’ll build your application artifacts with compiler tools. In the case of interpreted languages, you’ll likely build your application by downloading vendor dependencies, setting up relevant paths, and setting the environment up for production.

Create a new file in your hello-minicli folder called melange.yaml:

nano melange.yaml

The melange specification file contains three main sections:

  • package: defines package specs, such as name, license, and runtime dependencies. Runtime dependencies will be brought into the system automatically as dependencies when the apk is installed.
  • environment: defines how the environment should be prepared for the build, including required packages and their source repositories. Anything that is only required at build time goes here, and shouldn’t be part of the runtime dependencies.
  • pipeline: defines the build pipeline for this package.

One of the best advantages of using melange is to be able to control all steps of your build pipeline, and include only what’s absolutely necessary. This way, you’ll be able to build smaller and more secure container images by removing unnecessary dependencies.

Place the following content in your melange.yaml file:

  name: hello-minicli
  version: 0.1.0
  description: Minicli melange demo
    - all
    - license: Apache-2.0
        - "*"
      - php81
      - php81-common
      - php81-curl
      - php81-openssl

      - alpine-baselayout-data
      - ca-certificates-bundle
      - curl
      - php81
      - php81-common
      - php81-curl
      - php81-openssl
      - composer

  - name: Build Minicli application
    runs: |
      mkdir -p "${MINICLI_HOME}" "${EXEC_DIR}"
      cp ./composer.json "${MINICLI_HOME}"
      /usr/bin/composer install -d "${MINICLI_HOME}" --no-dev
      cp ./minicli "${EXEC_DIR}"
      chmod +x "${EXEC_DIR}/minicli"      

Save and close the file when you’re done.

Our build pipeline will set up two distinct directories, separating the application dependencies from its executable entry point. The executable minicli script will be copied into /usr/bin, while the vendor files will be located at /usr/share/minicli.

Step 4 — Building your apk

First make sure you’re at the ~/hello-minicli directory.

To get started, create a temporary keypair to sign your melange packages:

docker run --rm -v "${PWD}":/work keygen

This will generate a melange.rsa and files in the current directory.

2022/08/05 14:46:05 generating keypair with a 4096 bit prime, please wait...
2022/08/05 14:46:08 wrote private key to melange.rsa
2022/08/05 14:46:08 wrote public key to

Next, build the apk defined in the melange.yaml file with the following command:

docker run --privileged --rm -v "${PWD}":/work \ build melange.yaml \
  --arch x86,amd64,aarch64,armv7 \
  --signing-key melange.rsa

This will set up a volume sharing your current folder with the location /work inside the container. We’ll build packages for x86, amd64, aarch64, and armv7 platforms and sign them using the melange.rsa key.

When the build is finished, you should be able to find a packages folder containing the generated apks (and associated apk index files):

├── aarch64
│   ├── APKINDEX.tar.gz
│   └── hello-minicli-0.1.0-r0.apk
├── armv7
│   ├── APKINDEX.tar.gz
│   └── hello-minicli-0.1.0-r0.apk
├── x86
│   ├── APKINDEX.tar.gz
│   └── hello-minicli-0.1.0-r0.apk
└── x86_64
│   ├── APKINDEX.tar.gz
    └── hello-minicli-0.1.0-r0.apk

4 directories, 8 files

You have successfully built a multi-architecture software package with melange!

Step 5 — Building a Container Image with apko

With the apk packages and apk index in place, you can now build a container image and have your apk(s) installed within it.

Create a new file called apko.yaml in your ~/hello-minicli directory:

nano apko.yaml

The following apko specification will create a container image tailored to the application we built in the previous steps. Because we defined the PHP dependencies as runtime dependencies within the apk, you don’t need to require these packages again here. The container entrypoint command will be set to /usr/bin/minicli, where the application executable is located.

One important thing to note is how we reference the hello-minicli apk as a local package within the repositories section of the YAML file. The @local notation tells apko to search for apks in the specified directory, in this case /work/packages.

Place the following text in your apko.yaml file:

    - '@local /work/packages'
    - alpine-baselayout-data
    - ca-certificates-bundle
    - hello-minicli@local
    - groupname: nonroot
      gid: 65532
    - username: nonroot
      uid: 65532
  run-as: 65532
  command: /usr/bin/minicli advice

Save and close the file when you’re done. You are now ready to build your container image.

The following command will set up a volume sharing your current folder with the location /work in the apko container, running the apko build command to generate an image based on your apko.yaml definition file.

docker run --rm --workdir /work -v ${PWD}:/work \
  build apko.yaml hello-minicli:test hello-minicli.tar \
  --arch host \

This will build an OCI image based on your host system’s architecture (specified by the --arch host flag). If you receive warnings at this point, those are likely related to the types of SBOMs being uploaded and can be safely ignored.

The command will generate a few new files in the app’s directory:

  • hello-minicli.tar — the packaged OCI image that can be imported with a docker load command
  • sbom-%host-architecture%.cdx — an SBOM file for your host architecture in cdx format
  • sbom-%host-architecture%.spdx.json — an SBOM file for your host architecture in spdx-json format

Next, load your image within Docker:

docker load < hello-minicli.tar
10f951ac3cd2: Loading layer [==================================================>]  7.764MB/7.764MB
Loaded image: hello-minicli:test-%host-architecture%

Note that the %host-architecture% will vary, and there may be multiple images loaded into your Docker daemon. Be sure to edit the variable in the following docker run command to match your target architecture. You can also click to edit it inline on this page.

Now you can run your Minicli program with:

docker run --rm hello-minicli:test-%host-architecture%

The demo should output an advice slip such as:

Only those who attempt the impossible can achieve the absurd.

You have successfully built a minimalist container image with your apk package installed on it. This image is fully OCI compatible and can be signed with Cosign for provenance attestation.


In this guide, we built a demo command line application and packaged it with melange. We also built a container image to install and run our custom apk, using the apko tool. For more information about apko, check our Getting Started with apko guide.

The demo files are available at the repository melange-php-demos, in the hello-minicli subfolder. For more information on how to debug your builds, please refer to the demo’s README file and check the official documentation for melange and apko.

Last updated: 2024-05-02 15:21